A transformer is an electrical device based on electromagnetic induction, transfers electrical energy from one electrical circuit to another without changing the frequency. A change in voltage and current usually accompanies energy transfer.
The transformer either decreases or increases the AC voltage. Transformers serve many purposes. Some transformers may be several stories high. For example, a transformer installed at a power generating station is quite large while some are so small that you can easily hold them in your hands, like one used in the charging device of a video camera.
Whatever the size, whether it is a distribution transformer or shell transformer, its job is always to convert the existing energy from one type to another. There are many types of transformers being used worldwide today, so in this guide, we will learn how many transformers are there and how they work, so let’s first begin with transformers’ working.
Components of a Transformer
Before we tell you anything further about types, you must recall that transformers do not produce electricity but, with the help of magnetic coupling, transmit electricity between two AC circuits. The magnetic flux gets a steady path with a transformer; thereupon, the current flows through the winding, also known as a coil. Any transformer has four basic parts mentioned below.
#1. Input Connections
It is also known as a primary side of a transformer since the primary electrical power change happens at this point.
#2. Output Connections
It is known as the secondary side of a transformer. From here, the electrical power is forwarded to the load. The incoming electric power is either increased or decreased, which depends upon the requirement of the load.
Every transformer consists of two winding types; primary and secondary winding.
- Primary Winding: It is the coil that brings power from the source.
- Secondary Winding: It’s the coil that sends the changed voltage to the load.
A core is usually a combination of many thin laminated steel sheets, which helps in reducing heat. It provides a controlled path for the magnetic flux, which is generated in the transformer. It has two types given below:
- Core type: In this core type, the laminated core is surrounded by the windings.
- Shell type: In this type also the winding is surrounded by the laminated core.
Every best transformer manufacturer gives extra attention to these components and their quality and keeps in mind the use and application of the same and thus provides you with the best solution possible.
Types of Transformer
There are primarily two types of transformers as listed down:
- Step-down transformer: Such transformers’ primary coil has more turns as compared to the secondary coil. Simply put, the voltage in the second coil exceeds the voltage in the first coil.
- Step-up transformer: It’s a kind of transformer whose secondary coil has more turns than the primary and helps increase the voltage. So, be it dry-type transformersor any other type, all fall within these two categories.
Functioning Of a Transformer
With the input voltage application to what we call a primary wending, the alternating current keeps flowing in the primary winding. It further leads to the set up of a transforming magnetic field in the core of the transformer.
Further, the magnetic field cuts the secondary winding, and alternate voltage is produced in the same. The key here is the ratio of the number of turns of wire in each coil.
It determines the transformer type and the output voltage. That said, the ratio between output and input voltage remains the same. In the two windings as per the given ratio of the number of turns between these two.
What to Consider Before Buying a Transformer
There are some things that you need to keep handy before you plan to buy a transformer. Here are those:
#1. Phase: How many phases a transformer should have depends entirely on the user’s need. Usually, the transformers come in single or three-phase. Single-phase power transformers are good for household use, whereas a three-phase transformer is used in industries and factories.
#2. Voltage: Now, this is very important. It would help if you always considered
the main power supply voltage as different transformers are designed to provide different voltages. The primary power supply is responsible for input voltage meantime, and output voltage depends upon other factors.
#3. Frequency: You can customize any transformer to change the voltage supply frequency. To use equipment made in a different country, you might need to alter the frequency.
#4. Capacity: To reduce overloading risk, you should consider a unit with a larger size. For example, should you need 9.5 KVA, your transformer should have 10 KVA size.
#5. Location: Different transformers are suitable for a different place and location, i.e., indoor or outdoor. Outdoor transformers should withstand environmental concerns.
Irrespective of its shape and size, the entire transformer performs the task of converting electricity in one way or another. The list below classifies some power supply system transformers:
#1. Dry Type Transformers
This type of transformer never uses any liquid insulation. Instead, air pressurization is used, and the cores are kept within a sealed tank. These transformers are of two types; a) Cast resin dry-type transformers, b) Vacuum pressure impregnated transformer.
#2. Power and Distribution Transformers
It includes all the transformers of large sizes useful for power stations and or substations to transform the voltage at each end. Single-phase power & distribution transformers are examples as they help provide the final voltage transformation.
#3. Power Transformers:
It helps to transfer electrical energy in any electronic circuit between the primary distribution circuits and the generator.
#4. Electronic Transformers
Also known as inverter transformers, electronic transformers are the best for low power usability. Such transformers are commonly used in computers and lighting. These transformers are best used with Servo Voltage Stabilizer to stabilize the output voltage.
That’s all about the transformer types, functions, and precautions you must take as a buyer. We hope that this guide has provided you with useful insights and ideas from a transformer’s built-up to its functioning. If you have some comments or suggestions on this particular topic, you can feel free to drop us a line.
Mr. Ravi Mahajan is the MD of Muskaan Power Infrastructure Limited. He is originally from Ludhiana, Punjab and it is his deep connection with his roots that has inspired him to venture into the industry through which he can bring great changes for the common people of the country. With a strong educational background in electrical and electronics field, Mr. Mahajan has enabled Muskaan Power Infrastructure Limited to produce the best electrical equipments with cutting edge technology. It is the sheer will power and technical knowledge of Mr. Mahajan that has enabled him to make Muskaan Power grow and thrive at its best.